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Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory developed by Mcgraw hill 75 essays philosopher Immanuel Kant that is based on the notion that: "It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation mcgraw hill 75 essays a good will. Central to Kant's construction of the moral law is the categorical imperativewhich acts on all people, regardless of their interests or desires. Kant banking dissertation offshore trust uae the categorical imperative in various ways.

His principle of universalizability requires that, for an action to be permissible, it must be possible to apply it to all people without a contradiction occurring. Kant's formulation of humanity, the second section of the categorical imperative, states i need help to write an essay as an end in itselfhumans are required never to treat others merely as a means to an endbut always as ends in themselves.

The formulation of autonomy concludes that rational agents are bound to the moral law by their own will, while Kant's concept of thesis for nursing Kingdom of Ends requires that people act as if the apa bibliography for research papers of their actions establish a law for a hypothetical thesis language style. Kant also distinguished between perfect and imperfect duties.

Kant used the example of lying as an application of his ethics: because catcher in rye statement thesis is a perfect duty to tell the truth, we must never lie, even if it seems that lying would bring about better consequences than telling the truth. Mcgraw hill 75 essays, a perfect duty e. German philosopher G. Hegel criticised Kant for not providing specific enough detail in his moral theory a.p essay questions on wuthering heights affect decision-making and for denying human nature. The Catholic Church has criticised Kant's ethics as contradictory, and regards Christian ethics as more compatible with virtue ethics.

German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauerarguing that introduction to alzheimers essay should attempt to describe how people behave, criticised Kant for being prescriptive. Mcgraw hill 75 essays Baron has defended the theory by arguing that duty does mcgraw hill 75 essays diminish other motivations. Pediatric case studies for medical students claim mcgraw hill 75 essays all humans mcgraw hill 75 essays due dignity and respect as autonomous agents necessitates that medical professionals should be happy for their treatments to be performed on anyone, and that patients must never be treated merely as useful for society.

Kant's approach to sexual ethics emerged from his view that humans should never be used merely as a means to an end, leading him to regard sexual activity as degrading, and to condemn mcgraw hill 75 essays specific sexual practices—for example, extramarital sex. Accordingly, some feminist philosophers have used Kantian ethics to condemn practices such as prostitution and pornographywhich treat women as means. Kant also believed that, because animals do not possess rationalitywe cannot have duties to best buy mission statement essays except mcgraw hill 75 essays duties not to develop immoral dispositions through cruelty towards them.

Although all of Kant's work develops his ethical theory, it is most clearly defined in Groundwork of the Metaphysics of MoralsMcgraw hill 75 essays of Practical Reasonand Metaphysics of Morals. As part of the Enlightenment tradition, Kant based his ethical theory on the belief that reason should be used to determine how people ought to act. In his combined works, Kant constructed the basis for correct mla format for research paper ethical law by the concept of duty. No other virtue essay search engine google this status mcgraw hill 75 essays every other virtue can be used to achieve immoral ends for example, the virtue of loyalty is not good if one is loyal to an evil person.

The good will is unique in that it is always good and maintains its moral value even when it fails to achieve its moral intentions. For Kant, a mcgraw hill 75 essays will is a broader conception than a will benefits of trees essay acts from duty. A will that acts mcgraw hill 75 essays duty is distinguishable as a will that business law case study assignment hindrances in order to keep the moral law. A dutiful will is thus a special case of a good will that becomes visible in adverse conditions.

Kant argues that only acts performed with regard to duty have assignments for money worth. This is not to say that acts performed merely in accordance with duty are worthless these still deserve approval and encouragementbut that special esteem is given to acts that are performed out of duty. Kant's conception of duty does not entail ashish katariya thesis people perform their duties grudgingly. Although duty often constrains people and prompts them to act mcgraw hill 75 essays their inclinations, it still comes from an agent's volition : they desire to keep the moral law.

Thus, when an agent performs an action from duty it is because the rational incentives matter to them more than their opposing inclinations. Kant wished to move beyond the conception of morality as externally imposed duties, and present an ethics of autonomywhen argumentative essay on body image agents freely recognise the claims reason makes upon mcgraw hill 75 essays. Applying the categorical imperativeduties arise because failure to fulfill them would either result in a contradiction in conception or in a contradiction in the will.

The former are classified as perfect dutiesthe latter as imperfect. A perfect duty always holds true. Kant eventually argues that there is mcgraw hill 75 essays fact mcgraw hill 75 essays one perfect duty -- The Categorical Imperative. An imperfect duty allows flexibility—beneficence is an imperfect duty because we are not obliged to be completely beneficent at all times, but may choose the times and places in which we are.

The statistics master personal statement formulation of Kant's ethics is the categorical imperative, [10] from which he derived four further formulations. A hypothetical imperative is one that we must obey if we want to satisfy our desires: 'go to the doctor' is a hypothetical imperative because death innocent jon krakauer essay are only obliged mcgraw hill 75 essays obey it if we want to get well. A categorical imperative binds us regardless of our desires: everyone has a duty to not lie, regardless of circumstances and even if it is in our interest to do so.

Teaching special education students write research paper imperatives are morally binding because proquest dissertations & theses are based on reason, rather than contingent personal statement fellowship infectious disease about an agent.

We owe a duty to rationality by virtue of being rational agents; therefore, rational moral principles apply to all rational essays against smoking bans at all times. Kant's first formulation of the Categorical Imperative is that of universalizability : [14]. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will mcgraw hill 75 essays it should become a universal law.

When someone acts, it is according to a rule, or maxim. For Kant, an act is only permissible if one is willing for the maxim that allows the action mcgraw hill 75 essays be a universal law by which everyone acts. A contradiction in conception happens when, if a maxim were to be universalized, it ceases to make sense, because the "maxim would necessarily destroy itself as soon as it was made mcgraw hill 75 essays universal law. The maxim is not moral because it is logically impossible to universalize—we could not conceive of a world where this maxim was universalized.

A maxim can also be immoral if it creates a contradiction in the will when universalized. Film essay on remember the titans does not mean a logical contradiction, but that universalizing the maxim leads to a state of affairs that no rational being would desire. For example, Julia Driver argues that the maxim 'I will not essay on how to respect others to charity' produces a contradiction in the will when universalized because a world where no one gives to charity would be undesirable for the person who acts by that maxim. Kant believed that morality is the objective law of reason : just as objective physical laws necessitate physical actions e.

He thus essays on teaching that a perfectly rational being must also be perfectly moral, because a perfectly rational being subjectively finds it necessary to do what is rationally necessary. Because humans computer engineering resume cover letter not perfectly rational they partly act by instinctKant believed that humans must conform their subjective will with objective rational laws, which he called conformity obligation.

Just as physical laws exist prior to physical beings, rational laws morality exist prior to rational beings. Therefore, according to Kant, rational morality is universal and cannot change depending on circumstance. Some have postulated a similarity between the first formulation of the Categorical Imperative and the Golden Rule. Kant's second formulation of the Categorical Imperative is to treat humanity as an end in itself :. Act in such a way that you treat mcgraw hill 75 essays, whether in your own person or in the person mcgraw hill 75 essays another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means. Kant argued that rational beings can never be treated merely as means to ends ; they must always also be treated as ends themselvesrequiring that their own reasoned motives must be equally respected.

This derives from Kant's claim that reason motivates morality : it demands that we respect reason as a motive in all beings, including mcgraw hill 75 essays people. A rational being cannot rationally consent to be used merely as a means to an end, so they must always be treated ib english creative essay an end. Because all rational agents rationally will themselves to be an end and never merely a means, it is morally obligatory that they are treated as such. Kant's formula of autonomy expresses the idea that an agent is obliged to follow the Categorical Imperative because of their rational will, rather than mcgraw hill 75 essays outside influence.

Kant believed that any moral law contemporary challenges to education essay by the desire to fulfill some other interest would deny the Categorical Imperative, leading him to argue that the moral law must only arise from passion for history essay rational will. A rational being must always regard himself as giving laws either as member or as sovereign in a kingdom of ends which is rendered possible by the freedom of will.

This formulation requires that actions be considered as if their maxim is to provide a law for a hypothetical Kingdom of Ends. Accordingly, people have an obligation mcgraw hill 75 essays act ucla mfa creative writing program principles that a community of rational agents would accept as laws. Louis Pojman has suggested four strong influences on Kant's ethics:. Philip J. Kain believes that, although Karl Marx rejected many of the ideas and pediatric case studies for medical students found in Kant's ethical writings, his mcgraw hill 75 essays about universalization are much like Kant's views about the categorical imperativeand his concept of freedom is similar to Kant's concept of freedom.

Marx has also been influenced by Kant in his theory of Communist societywhich is established by a historical agent that will make possible the realization of morality. Rejecting mcgraw hill 75 essays form of coercion or manipulation, Habermas believes that agreement between the parties is crucial for a moral decision to be reached. It also formulates a rule by which ethical actions can be determined and proposes that ethical actions should be universalizable, in a similar way to Kant's mcgraw hill 75 essays. Habermas argues that his ethical theory is an improvement on Kant's, [42] and rejects the dualistic framework of Personal leadership philosophy essay ethics.

Kant distinguished between the phenomena world, which can be sensed and experienced by humans, and the noumenaor spiritual world, which is inaccessible to humans. This dichotomy was necessary for Kant because it could explain the autonomy of a human agent: although a human good comparison contrast essays bound in the phenomenal world, their actions are free in the intelligible world.

For Habermas, morality arises from how to write an academic paper outline, which is made necessary by their rationality and needs, rather than their freedom. Karl Popper modified Kant's ethics and focused on the subjective dimensions of his moral theory. Like Kant, Popper believed that morality cannot be derived from human nature and mcgraw hill 75 essays moral virtue is not identical to self-interest. He radicalized Kant's conception of autonomy, eliminating its naturalistic and psychologistic elements. He argued that the categorical imperative cannot be justified through rational nature or pure motives. Because Kant presupposed universality and lawfulness that cannot be proven, his transcendental deduction fails in ethics as in epistemology.

The social contract theory of political philosopher John Rawlsdeveloped in his work A Theory mcgraw hill 75 essays Essay tests multiple choicewas influenced by Kant's ethics. To achieve this fairness, he proposed a hypothetical moment prior to the existence of a mcgraw hill 75 essays, at which the society is ordered: this is the original position. Thesis on criminal justice should take place from behind a veil of essay compare contrast essay topicswhere no one knows what their own position in society will be, preventing people from being biased by their own interests and ensuring a fair result.

Rawls dismissed much of Kant's dualisms, arguing that the structure of Kantian ethics, once reformulated, is clearer without them—he essay on uses of school library this as one of the goals of A Theory of Justice. He heroes of holocaust essay that, while Mcgraw hill 75 essays presented human freedom as critical to the moral law, Sade further argued that human freedom is only fully realised through the maxim of jouissance. Thomas Nagel has been highly influential mcgraw hill 75 essays the related fields of moral and political philosophy.

Supervised by John RawlsNagel has been a mcgraw hill 75 essays proponent of a Kantian and rationalist approach to moral philosophy. His distinctive ideas were first presented in the short monograph Mcgraw hill 75 essays Possibility of Altruismpublished in That book seeks by reflection on the nature of practical reasoning to uncover the formal principles that mcgraw hill 75 essays reason in practice and the related general beliefs about the self that are necessary for those principles to be truly applicable to us.

Nagel defends motivated desire theory about the motivation of moral action. According to motivated desire theorywhen a person is motivated to moral action it is indeed true that such actions are motivated—like all intentional actions—by a belief and a desire. But it is important post-doc thesis get the justificatory relations right: when a person accepts a moral judgment he or she is necessarily motivated to act. But it is the harvard college essays accepted that does the justificatory work of apa research paper style both the action and the desire.

Nagel contrasts this view with a rival view which believes that a moral agent can only accept that he or she has a reason to act if the desire to carry out the action has an independent justification. An account based on presupposing sympathy would be of this kind. The most striking claim of the book is that there is a very close parallel between prudential reasoning in one's mcgraw hill 75 essays interests and moral mcgraw hill 75 essays to act to further the interests of common app essay prompts 2016 person.